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Mario Cabral e Sa

The area comprising Goa, as we know it, has existed in myth and reality from times immemorial. So far, the presence of the Neolithic Man in parts of South Goa, like Sanguem, and north-east Goa, like Sattari is a historical fact. But Goa, the geographical unit which now constitutes the State of Goa, is the territory vacated by the Portuguese on December 19, 1961. It has an area of about 3,700 sq.kms. The nucleus of it, the island of Teeswadi which the Portuguese knew as Ilha de Goa, was conquered on November 25, 1510 and the rest of the territory was annexed over the next 270 years.

Understandably, between Neolithic and modern times the demographic profile of the territory has undergone various and profound changes and ‘who is a Goan ?’ has been a disputatious question. The well known historian Prof. Dr.A.K. Priolkar attempted to answer it in a small book appropriately entitled, Who is a Goan ? His conclusion was: A Goan is anyone, whatever his present whereabouts, whose forefathers have been domiciled in Goa at any time in history and who is aware of the connection and cherises it and values it.

One will be guided by that sagacious definition. The other question that occurs is: How does one judge ‘eminence’ ? For a territory as tiny as Goa the number of personalities that have earned distinction in their chosen fields of activity is astounding. Imagine yourself participating in a Quiz contest and the quiz master asking the following 10 questions. What would your answer be ?

1. Who was the Brahmin who embraced Buddhism and spread it on the West Coast of India ? Clue: he was a Goan.

2. In 1678, Van Rheedes, the Dutch governor of Malabar published his famous

treatise on Indian medicinal plants, Horticus Malabaricus. Three celebrated

Ayurved physicians were his mentors. Who were they? Clue: they were of

Goan origin.

2. V. Lenin instituted a chair of Indology in the Moscow University. Who was the first scholar he selected to head it. Clue: he was a Goan.

3. Who was the scientist who discovered hypnotism and its use as a medicinal tool? Clue: he was a Goan.

4. Dudley Senenayke and W.R.S. Dias–Bandaranaike, two former prime ministers of Sri Lanka, were once friends then turned bitter foes but continued to share a passion: What was it? Clue: a musical instrument.

5. Who was Raja Ravi Varma, the famous Kerala artist’s most frequently used female model ? Clue: she was a Goan.

6. Who was the first Asian to head the International Council of Management? Clue: he was a Goan.

7. Who was the Vice-president of Kenya in 1966 ? Clue: a Kenyan of Goan descent.

8. Who is the world record-holder of the highest number of songs recorded ? Clue: a Goan.

9. Who was the general of Vijayanagar Kingdom who reconquered Goa in 1355 from its then Muslim rulers? Clue: he was a Goan.

If your answers were as follows you would have scored a perfect 10 out of 10:

(1) Panna aka Purnea (2) Appu Bhatt, Ranga Bhatt and V. Pandit (3) Francisco Bragança Cunha, the elder brother of the revolutionary Tristão Brangança Cunha, the Father of

Goan Freedom Movement (4) José Custódio Faria, aka Abbé Faria b. in Candolim 1756 d. in Paris 1879 (5) Piano, Western music, their teacher was Mathias Menezes, from Malar, Goa, the scion of a family of virtuosos, his brother John popularized western music in Kolkatta. (6) Anjanibai Malpekar (b. Malpe, Goa 1883 d. Bombay 1974), she was a very talented singer and combined great physical beauty with a malleable voice; she regretted that at her recitals her physical beauty attracted more male admirers than her voice and, in disgust, gave up singing when she was still young, in her thirties. (7) Management guru Walter E. Vieira, b. in Cuncolim 1938 (8) Joseph Murumbi Zuzarte b.Africa 1911, descendant of a Goan merchant from Guirim, Goa and a Kenyan mother, participated in the Kenyan freedom movement, had Pio Gama Pinto, originally from Saligao, Goa as his role model ; Pio was the right hand man of the great Kenyan patriot Jomo Kenyata. (9) Lata Mangeshkar, the ‘Nightingale of India’, with over 30,000 recorded film songs, she was awarded Bharat Rana, the highest Indian civilian honour. (10) Madhav Mantri.

Had the quiz master queried who, among eminent Goans, was the greatest of them all it would a very difficult question to answer. For, there have been remarkable personalities all along its mileneal history. A subjective judgement it will obviously be, and hence subject to dispute. There are Goans who distinguished themselves in every aspect of human endeavour – arts, science, spirituality, diplomacy, education, and incredibly, given Goan’s staidness and pacifist disposition, in the fields of adventure and warfare. A Goan was in modern times the chief of Indian army staff, General Sunith F. Rodrigues, at present governor of Punjab. In the 18th Century, J. Luis Vaz (b.Divar around 1750, d.1799) rose to be a general of the Maratha army, he led the Peshwa’s forces to victory, died in battle. Also in the 18th Century, two Goans both bearing the surname of Pereira – one of them Pedro Caetano Pereira and the other Gonsalo Caetano Pereira – were fierce and shrewd warriors, loved in peace and feared in war. Pedro, crowned himself Emperor of Makanga (an area in modern Mozambique), totally ‘cafrealized’ himself (as Portuguese chroniclers pejoratively describe him), was a friend of tribal chiefs and fought the Portuguese, so fiercely that his subjects bestowed on him the title ‘Chamatova’ which, in their language, means invincible. Gonsalo, on the other hand, nominated himself ‘Chief Captain of Tete’, was bestowed the title ‘Dombo’ which means terror, and was a loyal ally of the Portuguese. He explored gold mines, set himself the impossible task of building a road spanning both coasts of Africa, from Mozambique to Angola to expand his trading empire, but, after squandering much of his wealth, perished – “emaciated but strong of spirit”, as his contemporaries describe him.

A document in the Kerala State Archives Emakulam mentions that three learned Ayurveds Ranga Bhatt. Vinayaka Pandit and Appu Bhat collaborated with the Dutch governor Hendrik A. van Rheedes and helped him put together, in 1670, the colossal treatise entitled Hortus Indicus Malabaricus, on medicinal trees, plants, roots, seeds, flowers and barks. The Dutch government celebrated the 300th anniversary of its publication with great pomp. The ayurveds verify in Konkani their inputs in that famous treatise.

As stated, it is a subjective opinion, but one wouldn’t be far from the truth if one nominated José Custódio Faria, Abbé Faria, the discoverer of scientific hypnotism as the Goan who had, in global terms, the greatest impact on science and modern medicine.

We have not found any historical confirmation of the meeting between Lord Buddha and Poorna, which in no way means that we disbelieve the relevant oral tradition. But there is plenty of evidence on the life and times of other eminent Goans.

In more recent time, the internationally acclaimed Professor Dr.Idalêncio Froilano de Melo was along with the Nobel Laureate Professor C.V. Raman the founder member of the prestigious Indian Academy of Science.

Here below is a concise random listing, in alphabetical order, of some of the more eminent Goans:

ABBÉ FARIA, full name José Custódio Faria (b.Candolim 1756, d.Paris 1819). He was the son of Rosa Pinto, from Candolim, in whose palatial house (the house still exists, it has been acquired by government) and Caetano Vitorino, from Colvale. His parent’s had been a torrid love affair. Caetano, for that reason, gave up his priestly studies, but the marriage soon turned sour and was dissolved by the Church, each parent entering thereafter religious life. Rosa became a nun in the Santa Mónica convent in Old Goa and Caetano Vitorino was ordained priest. José Custódio grew up with his father and left with him for Europe. He was educated in Lisbon (his father had wormed his way into the Portuguese royalty and became the queen’s confessor) and Rome, where he was ordained. He then moved to Paris where he became a fervent proponent of scientific hypnotism and was, for that reason, censured by the Church. Dauntless, he proceeded with his quest for Enlightenment and put forth his theory of “someil lucide”, literally meaning lucid sleep, his coinage for hypnotism. He successfully practiced it, though he was derided by cynics who exploited some of the unrealistic claims he made and heaped ridicule on him. Ostracised by the Church, he died a pauper in 1819 and was buried in an unmarked grave. It was one year after his death that his masterly thesis, De la Cause du Someil Lucide was published and his revolutionary discovery recognized by the scientific world. He was characterized, somewhat perversely, as the ‘Mad Monk’ in Alexander Dumas’ classic work, Count of Monte Cristo.

ABREU, Cincinatus F. (b. Sind, 1862; d. 1929). His parents hailed from Saligao, Goa. Like many of his compatriots he opted for a clerical job and rose to Customs Collector. Again, like many of his compatriots, he promoted the welfare of fellow-Goans. His greatest achievement was that, on his retirement, he founded an insurance company, and the Karachi township that bears his name and still is a prized address by the upper middle class of that Pakistani port city and once the capital of the country.

AFONSO, Bossuet (b.Betalbatim, 1881; d.1957). After his secondary education in English he went to Europe for higher studies. In 1909 he joined the ophthalmological clinic of the famous Prof. Cart Hess; in the same year he presented his thesis on his experimental research on the influence of X-rays on the lens of the eye. It won him recognition in the medical world and awards in Germany. He returned to Goa and had a very large practice.

AFONSO , Emídio da C. (b.1916; d.1990). Was the eldest son of Dr. Bossuet Afonso, graduated in medicine from the Escola Medica de Goa, was a famous physician and researcher. He also was a self-taught engineer, built his own electrocardiograph, and an apparatus for immuno-electro-phoresis analysis. He also was a gifted violinist.

ALVARES, F.X. (b.Verna, 1837, d.1923). Padre Alvares, as he was known, was a fearless Catholic priest who opposed both the Portuguese political regime and Catholic hierarchy. As a protest, he left the Catholic fold, joined the Syrian Christians and became Syrian Orthodox Bishop at Brahmawara, Karnataka. Though born in relative affluence, he died a pauper.

AMONKAR, Kishori (b.Bombay ? ) Is daughter of very gifted singer Mogubai Kurdikar. Groomed in Jaipuri style, she evolved her own distinct style. Was twice honoured by India’s President with Padma Shri in 1987 and Padma Bhushan in 2002.

AUGUSTO, Andre Constancio (b.1888; d.1947). Originally from Rachol from the under-privileged local tribal community, he migrated to Bombay where he distinguished himself as an architect. Designed Bombay’s Town Hall and Christ Church, was also a painter of merit, his tableau of the Portuguese king D. Sebastião is seen at the Rachol Seminary.

BANDODKAR, Dayananda (b. Pernem, 1911, d.1973). Was a mine-owner who rose from very humble beginnings, as a child he saw his father shoot himself dead. Was a great philanthropist, lent financial support to Goa’s freedom struggle, also financed sports clubs, athletes and welfare organizations. Participated in the Quit India Movement of 1942. Was the first Chief Minister of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman, Diu (1963 to 1973). Was so popular that was re-elected twice to the Legislative Assembly, his third term was cut short by his sudden death of a massive heart-attack while in power. He introduced progressive measures such as the radical Tenancy Act.

BARRETO, Adeodato ( b.Margao, 1905, d. 1937). Was a lawyer, poet, author and social activist in Portugal. Founded India Nova to voice aspirations of Goans. Because of his militancy and radical political beliefs and actions, was a marked man by PIDE, the ruthless Portuguese Secret Service police of the dictatorial Salazar regime. Died young, of tuberculosis, a poor and sad man.

BENEGAL, Shyam Sunder (b.Trimulghery, near Hyderabad, 1934.) Is one of India’s most renouned film directors and script writers. Descends from Goan Saraswat Brahmins of the Kavlem Mutt. Has won several awards for excellence.

BHANDARKAR, Ramkrishna Gopal (b. ? Malwan,; d. 1925). A descendant of Goan Saraswat Brahmins of Kavelem Mutt, this Bombay-Poona-based orientalist, Sanskrit scholar and historian was Vice-chancellor, Bombay University, 1893-95. Contributed to journals of learned societies on philological and antiquarian subjects. Was also a social reformer, wrote Sanskrit educational works, was leader of the progressive religious movement Prathna Samaj and supported re-marriage of widows. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, named after him, was inaugurated in his honour in 1917.

BHATT, Apa and Ranga. Were South Indian ayurvedic doctors descendants of Goan Brahmins, who, alongwith V. Pandit, also an ethnic Goan, were mentors of the Dutch governor Van Rheedes in his famous work on medicinal plants and fruits of India Hortcus Malabaricus, 1678. The manuscript signed by the trio contains the Konkani names of plants and fruits listed in the work.

BORKAR, Bakibab – full name Balkrishna Baghwant Borkar (b.1910, d.1984). Began literary career as Marathi poet and attained great heights of excellence, later, inspired by celebrated Konkani literature and language revivalist Shenoy Goembab, began to write in Konkani and is regarded as the greatest of Konkani poets. Was honoured with the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1981.

BORGES, Ernesto J.J. (b. Ucassaim, 1909; d. Bombay,1969). Was an internationally respected cancer specialist attached to Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, which he headed for many years till constant exposure to radiation, while treating his patients, claimed his life. Is remembered much after his death by some of his still surviving patients and all those, both professionals and lay persons, who came in contact with him for his profound knowledge of oncology and, even more so, his dedication, diligence, compassion and altruism. Participated in several medical conferences in India and abroad, has a number of publications to his credit, was founder member of Catholic Medical Guild of St. Luke, Bombay and was elected in 1966 the vice president of International Federation of Catholic Medical Associations. Was also a deeply religious man. A legend in his life-time, after his death Goa and Bombay honoured his memory naming after him important roads.

BRAGANÇA-CUNHA, Tristão (b. Chandor, 1891, d.1958). Sorbonne-educated engineer spearheaded Goa’s freedom movement. Was imprisoned by the Portuguese in the Salazar regime. On release on parole, escaped to Paris, returned to India, settled in Bombay and led the movement for Goa’s freedom. Authored several propaganda booklets, among them, Portuguese India and Denationalisation of Goans, and founded Goa Congress Committee. World Peace Council posthumously awarded him its gold medal. Is known as Father of Goan Freedom Movement.

BRAGANÇA Tomaz Aquino (b.1922; d.1986) Was respected left-oriented intellectual who made a mark in Portugal, France and Africa. Was closely associated with the African liberation movement, first in Algeria along with Hoari Boumedianne, the first President of that country and, later, a collaborator of his successor Ahmed Ben Bella, then shifted to Mozambique and was advisor to Samora Machel, who rose to be his country’s President. Perished in the mysterious crash of Machel’s plane over South African territory, then still under apartheid.

CARVALHO, Joãozinho, (b. Siolim 1903; d. 1996). [Siolim]. Was a great exponent of Western classical, particularly sacred music, and also of dance hall music. Was for well over three decades leader of the dance band Johnson and his Jolly Boys, the most famous of Goa-based bands till the advent of plugged music.

CRASTO, Mateus de (d. Divar, 1609; d.1679). Was the first Goan bishop. Consecrated in Rome in 1639, revolted against the Padroado, the Portugal – sponsored evangelistic organization, joined the rival movement Sacred Congregation of Propagation of Faith (FIDE). Was appointed Vicar Apostolic of non-Portuguese territories with headquarters in Bicholim, then Maratha territory.

CORREA, Charles (b.1930). The scion of a Moira, Bardes family, is one of the most reputed Indian architects. Trained in USA, on completion of his studies returned to Bombay, adapted western design to Indian conditions, and is an internationally respected urbanist. Designed Navi Mumbai, Bombay’s satellite town. Was recipient of several awards e.g. the Gold Medal of Royal Institute of British Architects and Japan’s Premium Imperiale, the most prestigious of all Japanese honours. Was the chairman of National Commission of Urbanisation (1985), In Goa he designed Goa’s Kala Academy, Hotel Cidade de Goa, Hotel Dona Sylvia. Was commissioned to design the Neurosciences Center at M.I.T. (U.S.A.)

CORREIA-AFONSO, John (d.1924, d 2005). Jesuit historian regarded as one of the leading authorities of the Portuguese period of Asian history. Was twice head of Heras Historical Research Institute. Also was Principal, St. Xavier’s College, Bombay. After the fall of the Caetano regime in Portugal, initiated the on going series of international seminars on Indo-Portuguese History.

COSTA, António da (b. Portuguese Africa, 1961). Son of the well known Goan fictionist Orlando Costa is a lawyer by academic training and descendant of a Margao, Goa family. A leading socialist leader of Portugal, he is at present minister of state and internal administration, the number two in the Portuguese cabinet. Being a well known lawyer, he was earlier minister for law.

COSTA, Bernardo Francisco da (b.Margao, 1821; d. 1986). Was a great parliamentarian and polemist. Founded O Utramar, the first Goan newspaper, represented Goa twice in Portuguese parliament. Was founder of Caixa de Providência, a unique provident fund cum saving bank that, after Goa’s merger in India, in 1961, was converted into Goa Co-operative Bank, the first and largest Goan co-operative bank.

COSTA, Francisco João da (b.Margo, 1859; d.1900). Was lawyer and newspaper columnist. A keen observer, he authored under the pseudonym JIP, Jacob e Dulce, a witty satire on the society of his time, the only work of Goan fiction in Portuguese “as spoken in Goa”.

COSTA, Orlando da (b.Mozambique, 1929). The scion of Goan emigrants to Mozambique, return to Goa to complete secondary education, did higher studies in Portugal. Began his literary career as poet. His novel O Signo da Ira, published in 1961, reflects the political and social environment of Goa in his adolescence. It was banned in Goa, but not in Portugal, where he was awarded the prestigious prize Ricardo Malheiros, the Portuguese equivalent of the English Booker Prize for first novels.

CUNHA, José Gerson da (b.Arpora, 1844; d.1900). Was a Bombay-based physician who published research findings in medical journals. Won fame as historian. His Origin of Bombay is the first history of the city. Was also a numismatist and linguist well versed in western and oriental languages.

DADA YAIDYA full name Ramachandra Pandurang Vaidya (b. Keri, 1861; d.1938). Was born in a family of famous ayurvedic practitioners but the only one to be officially recognized and allowed to publicly practice as physician by the Portuguese. Was the first Indian physician to start a postal order service and dispensed his famous basms (medicine) for cure of T.B., then rampant in epidemic form in Portugal. He campaigned against illiteracy and alcoholism. Alongwith Sitaram Kerkar, co-founded League for Propagation of Education, and a high school in Ponda, named after António José de Almeida, a democratic Portuguese republican leader who rose to the Presidency of his country.

DAHANUKAR, Prafulla Joshi (b.Bandora, Goa, 1934). Famous Goa- origined Bombay- and Paris-trained woman painter, her works are displayed in national museums in Delhi, Bombay.

DALGADO, Sebastião Rodolfo (b.Assagao, 1825; d.1922). Was a learned priest, linguist and philologist. While on missionary work in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) he acquainted himself with South Indian languages and dialects and later with Bengali. Published philological and lexicographical studies, bilingual dictionaries, some of them highlighting the influence of Portuguese on various Asian languages. His contribution to Konkani renaissance is invaluable.

DEMPO, Vassantrao (b.1916, d.2000). A business man, industrialist, mine-owner and exporter was among pioneers of mechanized mining and ore beneficiation plants in Goa. A deeply religious man and patron of places of worship, both Hindu and Catholic, kept up family tradition of philantrophy and supported educational and cultural activities. Was also a supporter of sports activities and founded Dempo Sports Club whose football team is one of the leading of the country. Was a pioneer in the field of education, founded the first higher education English colleges in Goa. Also founded the first English daily of Goa The Navhind Times. Thrice President of Goa Chamber of Commerce and Industry, he received several honours and awards from India, and Portugal, among them Padma Shri. and Ordem de Torre e Espada.

DHUME, Vitaji Sinai (18th century). Was scion of the Dhumes of Cumbarjua who distinguished themselves as diplomats, court interpreters, littérateurs and historians. Was highly respected diplomat whose knowledge of neighbouring princes and their politics greatly helped the Portuguese during the early period of their rule.

DIAS, Anthony L. (b.1910; d.2003). Was distinguished member of Indian Civil Service. After India’s independence in 1947, had important role in resolving crises resulting from communal riots that heralded the birth of India and Pakistan. As secretary ministry of Food and Agriculture, ushered Green Revolution. On retirement from active service, was Governor of Tripura, (1970) West Bengal, (1971-77). Also headed Goa’s Land Reforms Commission, 1964, presented a well-researched report which, unfortunately, was ignored by the local government.

DIAS Antonio Rosário. This Goa-born artisan started young, in his teens, as apprentice to established tailors and rose to be the leading tailor in Bombay. His firm A.R. DIAS was the city’s most famous tailoring establishment. Was awarded gold medal in 1929 for his innovative seamless suit that won the admiration of Bombay Governor Sir Frederick Sykes.

DIAS, L. Guilherme (b.Salvador do Mundo,1849; d.1922). Born to a modest tin-smith family of Badem, Bardesh, migraged young to Mozambique where by sheer pluck and drive amassed great wealth. On return to Goa, continued to trade, was founder and twice president, in 1908 and 1917, of Associação Commercial da India Portuguesa now Goa Chamber of Commerce and Industries. Pioneered in Goa agricultural mechanization on the lines of what he had seen in Mozambique and of manganese ore mining.

DIAS, Miguel Caetano (b.Santo Estevam, 1852; d.1936). Born to poor peasants of Santo Estevan, by dint of hard work did his secondary education in Goa and availing of the help extended by his elder brother, Santana, who had, against all odds, graduated in pharmacy in Portugal (he was a Major in Portuguese armed forces), went to Lisbon and graduated in medicine. On completion of medical studies, ingressed in the colonial civil service, served in Mozambique, was then appointed director of health services of Goa in 1918 and later director, Escola Médica de Goa and Hospital Militar, Panjim. Rose to the rank of General in the Portuguese medical cadre.

FALEIRO, Eduardo (b.Lisbon, 1940). Lawyer by academic training turned politician, elected to Goa Legislative Assembly in 1971 and twice to Indian Parliament. Led Indian delegations and represented India at several international fora. Was first Goan minister of the Indian Union in 1986. and in that capacity successfully negotiated with Portugal the return of gold ornaments pledged by Goans, before Goa’s merger in India, with Banco Nacional Ultramarino which, in view of the impending armed action on Goa, transferred them to its Lisbon headquarters and held on to them for 36 years. At present is Commissioner for NRI Affairs, Goa.

FARIA, Rogério de (b. 1770; d. 1848). Santa Inês (?) Sangolda (?)–born trader operating from Calcutta and Bombay, amassed considerable wealth, much of it from exports of Indian opium to China. Wielded enormous influence in Portuguese court, was Portuguese agent in charge of Portuguese factory at Surat. Supported Bernardo Peres da Silva, the deposed Prefect of Goa, financed an abortive attempt to raise an army at Daman to reinstate Silva, incurred heavy losses in the foolhardy enterprise, and in his risky trading ventures, eventually went into bankruptcy and died in abject penury.

FERNANDES, João Agostinho (b.Margao, 1871; d.1947). A Rachol seminarian who gave up priestly studies because he fell in love with a Raia lass who died young, at 28. Was so deeply hurt by the tragedy that took to writing revolutionary songs and plays. Created character Kunnbi Jaki, to satirize the sad plight of the kunnbi serfs at their bhatkar’s (landlords) hands, exposed social injustice and caste system. Is considered Father of Goan’s Konkani tiatr.

FERNANDES, Lawrie (b.1929; d. 1995). Bombay-based Goan was great hockey player, member of the Indian team that won India’s first Olympic gold medal in London, in1948.

FERNANDES, Reginaldo (b.Siolim, 1914; d.1994). A prolific writer of Konkani novels (romans), and a gifted musician who played trumpet in famous Bombay bands of his time. Frequently featured in Emissora de Goa, the Portuguesa regime’s ‘voice of Goa’s’ Konkani programme. Believed to hold a world record of highest number of titles published.

FERNANDES, Remo (b.Panjim, 1953). Musician, fusion band leader, has put Indian poprock music on the international map.

FERRÃO, Filipe Nery (b.Mapusa, 1953). After a remarkable academic career and stint as teacher in Saligao and Rachol Seminaries, was consecrated bishop in 1994, and appointed Archbishop of Goa Archdiocese and Patriarch in 2004.

FIGUEIREDO, António F. (b. Loutolim, 1903; d.1981). Excellent conductor, founded Goa Symphony Orchestra, was founder-director, Academia de Música (renamed School of Western Music of Goa Kala Academy). Conducted orchestras in Vienna, Italy, Paris, and Lisbon. After completion of studies at the Goa Liceu, proceeded to Lisbon to obtain a law degree, but, much to family’s disappointment, enrolled in Lisbon’s Conservatório de Música, graduated from there with flying colours, returned to Goa as a professor of music at the Liceu, went on a scholarship to the Paris Conservatoire and achieved the degree of Maestro.

FONSECA, Angelo da (b.S. Estevam, 1902, d.1967). Artist specializing in Catholic motifs, his Indianized religious paintings were revolutionary and shocked many conservative viewers who disapproved of what they termed as ‘paganisation’ of Christianity. Was supported by Jesuits of Pune, where he settled. His works were exhibited in the Vatican Pavilion at the Grand Exposition of Sacred Missionary Art in the Anne Santo, (the Sacred year) organized by Cardinal Constantine.

FURTADO, B.X. (b.Dramapur, 1839; d.1918). Like many other Goans migrated to Bombay, invested his savings in the book trade and sports goods. Also published works of Konkani fiction writers. Founded St. Xavier’s Day School at Cavel which was taken over by Jesuits and then grew into the famous St. Xavier’s High School.

GAITONDE, V.S. (b.Nagpur, 1924; d. 1998). One of the more famous Indian painters hailed from a Goan family, but never claimed to be Goan. Was also a sculptor of merit. His works and philosophy inspired avant garde artists like Prafulla Dahanukar.

GAMA PINTO, Pio (b.Nairobi, 1927; d. 1965). Descendant of a Goan family from Saligao, was the right-hand man of Jomo Kenyata. Founded Shanti Ya Kanu, an anti-British newspaper and the equally anti-British Pan African Press news service. Actively supported Goa’s merger in India. For his extremist views and actions suffered long periods of detention. Was assassinated by political rivals.

GOMES, Francisco Luis (b.Navelim, 1829; d.1869). Hailed by many of his compatriots as the Father of Goa’s Liberation, was a tireless campaigner for Goa’s political autonomy. A multifaceted personality, talented writer, social reformer, economist, novelist and parliamentarian in Portuguese Parliament in 1861, his novel Os Brâmanes exposes social follies of his times.

GOMES PEREIRA, António Xavier (b.Divar, 1880; d.1957). A brilliant lawyer and legal expert whose opinion was much sought-after, was member of Conselho do Governo (1921 – 1930), editor of the short-lived daily Boletim do Comércio, (1913-1915). Realizing that Portugal would never concede the political autonomy he and like-minded intellectuals sought, at the fag end of his life, favoured Goa’s merger in India.

GONSALVES, Caetano (b.1868; d. 1953). A scion of the distinguished Cunha Gonsalves family of Divar Island, studied law in Portugal. His career in Portuguese judiciary earned him promotion to Supreme Court and the designation of Juís Conselheiro. Was appointed Governor-general of Angola (1910-11) by the republican regime that overthrew the monarchy on 10.10.1910. Authored many law books.

GONSALVES, Jácome (b.Divar, 1676; d. 1742). A member of the Oratorian Order founded by Goan saint Fr. José Vaz, was brilliant orator in many languages, particularly Konkani. Selected by Fr. José Vaz for missionary work in Ceylon, spent most of his life there. Sri Lanka government published his Sinhalese writings as of great literary value.

GONSALVES PEREIRA, Armando (b.Panjim, 1901; d.1983). Scion of a family from Divar, studied law and political economic in Portugal, did post-graduation in international law in Hague. A prolific writer he left behind a vast body of work, edited Grande Enciclopédia Portuguesa e Brasilera.

GRACIAS, Ismael (b.Loutulim, 1857; d. 1919). Was administrator, historian, teacher and bibliographer. A very enthusiastic researcher, he discovered various till then unpublished documents on Portuguese India.

GRACIAS, Valerian (b.Karachi, 1900; d.1978). Born to a poor servant woman from Navelim, Salcete who had migrated to Karachi was encouraged by the employers of his mother, Goans like her, but wealthy and in a position of prestige to study, had a brilliant academic record in Karachi and in Kandy, Sri Lanka where he was ordained priest. Was first Indian Archbishop of Bombay, also the first Indian Cardinal, appointed in 1953. Staunch supporter of Goa’s merger into India he actively campaigned for it.

HEGDE-DESSAI, Govind Pundalik (b.Rivona, 1885; d.1949). A noted intellectual, civil rights campaigner, lawyer, journalist, was founder, editor of Bharat, a nationalist political weekly..

KAISARE/Coissoró, Vinaik S. (b.Ponda, 1905; d. ? ) A noted criminal lawyer, great orator and a very liberal man, was one of the few of then practicing advocates who accepted briefs of those accused of ‘crimes against sovereignty’, the Portuguese terminology for opposing its colonial regime. Among famous cases he appeared as defence counsel were: murder of Raja of Sudem, the trial of ‘terrorists’, as the Portuguese termed them, Mohan Ranade and Polly da Silva.

KAKODKAR, Anil P.(b. Madhya Pradesh, 1943). Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission, former director, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (Bombay), is an internationally respected nuclear scientist. Helped design and improve the Dhruva nuclear reactor and developed chopper technology that benefited Bombay’s suburban trains.

KAKODKAR, Pandurang (b. Kakoda, 1938). Began career in 1957 as probationary officer of State Bank of India (SBI), by dint of hardwork rose to chairman. Back in Goa, chaired Goa’s Public Service Commission, is associated with Goa Management Institute, is on the board of directors of several corporations and institutions.

KAKODKAR, Purshottam (b. Kakoda, 1913; d. ?) Among first Goans to join ‘Quit India Movement’ and Goa’s freedom struggle, spent nine years at Peniche, the dreaded Portuguese jail where other Portuguese political prisoners like Mário Soares, later President, were held as common law prisoners. Organized and led Congress Party in post-merger Goa, but the party repeatedly failed till the bulk of the United Goans Party (UGP) merged in it and won the 1979 election.

KAKODKAR, Shashikala (b.Pernem, 1935). Goa’s first and only woman chief minister, succeeded her father, Dayananda Bandodkar on his death, in 1972. Still plays a significant role in Maharastrawadi Gomantak party.

KAMAT, Gurudas Datta (b.1935), A busy advocate of the Goa bar, was its first member to be raised to Bombay High Court in 1983, thirteen years later was appointed Chief Justice, Gujrat High Court.

KAMAT, Ramchandra Pandurang (b.Marcaim, 1907; d. ?). A product of J.J. School of Arts, Bombay was an outstanding sculptor, Abbé Faria’s statue in Panaji is one of his works.

KARNAD, Girish Ragunath (b. Matheran, 1938). Progeny of Goan emigrants to the erstwhile Canara Kingdom, presumably 16th/17th century refugees trying to escape forced conversions at the hands of the Portuguese, Oxford-educated, is an eminent playwright, film director and accomplished theatre actor.

KELEKAR, Ravindra (b.Cuncolim, 1925). Rated by many as the most accomplished of Konkani writers, is equally fluent in other vernacular languages. His Konkani travelogue, Himalayant, won Sahitya Akademi award.

KELKAR, Narsimha Chintaman (b.Miraj, 1872; d. 1947). A social revolutionary who participated in India’s freedom struggle, worked with Tilak in Swadeshi Movement, was a respected journalist, edited Marathi publications Kesari and Mahratta, his collected Marathi writings cover 12 volumes.

KENI, Chandrakant (b.1934) A passionate Konkaniphile, at the same time proficient Marathi writer, won Sahitya Akademi award, 1989, for collected short stories which, translated in English, find place in various anthologies of modern Indian literature, edited Rashtramat (in Marathi), Sunaparant (in Konkani), his columns now appear in various English, Konkani and Marathi publications.

KHALAP, Ramakant (b.Mapusa …”). Was front-ranking leader of the regional MG Party, then joined Indian National Congress, elected to Indian Parliament, was Union Minister of State for Law and Justice, in 1996.

KHOPE, Sanjay ( b. Cuncolim 1955). An eminent pediatric and neonatal surgeon, internationally famous for ‘Khope Technique’ (operative procedure in children for vernal hernia), born to a middle-class family of very modest means, struggled against heavy odds to complete his studies, is now respected for professional competence and compassion.

KOSAMBI, Damodar Dharmanand (b.Sancoale, 1907; d.1966). A professor of mathematics, historian, and numismatist, he pioneered the theory of calculating periods of ancient civilizations through their coins.

KOSAMBI, Dharmanand (b.Sancoale, 1876; d. 1947). A great Pali scholar, began his studies at fairly advanced age; after a stint at Harvad University, was appointed Professor of Pali, Fergusson College, Pune.

LAD, Bhau Daji (b.Mandrem, 1822; d.1874). Was among the first graduates to pass out from, Grant Medical College, Bombay in 1851. Studied ancient manuscripts on Indian medicines was one of the ‘Makers of Modern Bombay’, also worked for the creation of Bombay University, and was on its Syndicate. His researches in archaeology, ancient history and in the reading of old inscriptions are note-worthy, as are the papers he contributed to Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. He was the first Indian sheriff of Bombay (1869-1871). Among the causes he advocated are the remarriage of Hindu widows and education for girls. Along with Jamshetji Jaganath Shankarshett, Bobanji Hormansji, Cursetji Jamsetji, Vinayakarao Jaganathji, was founder of Bombay Association, in 1852. He patronized the theatre and a number of cultural associations. Unfortunately for him his industrial ventures ended in colossal failure in the crash of the Premchand Roychand empire.

LOIOLA, José Inácio de (b.Orlim, 1834; d. 1902). A physician, journalist and progressive political leader, he was co-founder and editor of A India Portuguesa, and chief of Partido Indiano, an autonomist Goan political party.

MADGAONKAR, Govind Narayan (b.Goa Velha 1815 d ?) A Bombay-based Marathi scholar, his Muimbachem Varnana was used as source material for the first Bombay Gazetteer.

MADHAV MANTRI (Marcela b. 14 c.) Son of Dwedi Chanda Bhatt and Machimbika, he migrated to Vijayanagar kingdom joined the army, rose to be a general, commanded forces that reconquered the Konkan and was appointed governor of Goa. He rebuilt the Saptakoteshwara temple vandalized by the Bahmanis. The establishment of Brahmapuri at Kochara village, Sawantwadi, is a memorial to him.

MALPEKAR, Anjanibai (b. Malpe, 1883; d. 1974). A very talented and knowledgeable singer, she regretted that her immense physical beauty attracted more admirers than her prodigious voice. In disgust, retired as a singer when young, around 30 years of age and, apart from modelling for the famous painter Raja Ravi Verma, lived in retirement till her death at 91.

MALLYA, Vijay. A descendant of Kavlem Mutt devotees migrated to Karnataka, is a wealthy industrialist. Owns one of the world’s largest breweries, his interests cover a wide field: liquor, civil aviation, horse-racing etc. Is also a politician, the president of Janata Party, and a member of Rajya Sabha.

MANGESHKAR, Dinanath G. (b.Mangeshi, 1900; d. 1942). A famous singer and stage actor he dominated the Marathi stage for a quarter century. The Kala Academy auditorium in Panjim is named after him.

MANGESHKAR, Lata (b.1929). Known as the ‘Nightingle of India, she is the eldest of Dinanath’s children. Began her career at 13 years of age and became India’s most famous playback singer. She has recorded more than 30,000 songs, won numerous awards and is listed in Guinness Book of World Records for the highest number of songs recorded. She won several awards, among them Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian honour.

MARATHE NARAYAN KARWARKAR (b.Marcel, 1904, d. ). A relentless campaigner against the inhuman devadasi system he was in the forefront of their re-habilitation. Along with a few others he persuaded the Portuguese Government to ban the shesa system which forbade their legal marriage.

MARTINS, Micael (b.Orlim, 1914; d.1999). A virtuoso violinist and composer, an authority on Música Sacra and Christian folklore, he performed for various musical groups, led film orchestras in Bombay. Along with José Pereira he wrote two authorative books on Konkani songs.

MASCARENHAS, Hubert Olympus (b.Porvorim, 1905; d.1957). A revolionary Catholic priest and linguist, he had serious differences of opinion with the Bombay Archbishop. To his credit, his goal of a synthesis between Christian Revelation and Indian Culture, once regarded by the hierarchy as unacceptable, is now an article of faith.

MASCARENHAS, Lambert (b.Colva, 1914). He began his long print media career with Morning Standard (renamed Indian Express) and, after stints in Bombay Sentinel, Onlooker, dedicated himself of the cause of Goa’s liberation in Goa Tribune founded and edited by Prof. Aloyisins Soares. After Goa’s merger in India he relocated himself to Goa, was co-editor of The Navhind Times and founder editor of Goa Today. Among his works of fiction Sorrowing lies my land was the most successful.

MASCRENHAS, Miguel Arcanjo, “Masci” (b.Anjuna, 1904; d.1976). He migrated to Bombay in his early teens, joined the Taj Mahal Hotel as kitchen helper, by dint of hard work rose to be the chief chef and director of the hotel. It was said of him that he “beat the French at basting the duck”, so good at French cuisine.

MASHELKAR, Raghunath A. (b.Marcel, 1943). A very distinguished and internationally acclaimed chemical engineer, he started life as the orphaned son of an illterate woman who migrated to Bombay and earned her living scrubbing pots, pans and kitchen floors in her neighbourhood in Bombay. He rose to be the director general of the Indian’s premier scientific body, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Of his many achievements the most important are: battle for recognition of India’s property rights over ayurvedic medicines like turmeric, and the turn around of the scientific institutes under the Council’s umbrella from lethargic heavy expense-incurring bodies into profitable and dynamic organizations.

MELLO, Anthony Stanislaus de (b.Karachi, 1900; d.1962). The scion of emigrants from Saligao, Goa to Karachi, after graduating from Downing College, Combridge, he joined a British trading company headed by Grant Gowan who shared with D’Mello an intense passion for cricket and founded the Board of Cricket Control. D’Mello launched Cricket Club in 1933 and built the Brabourne Stadium in Bombay, “with just 500 rupees in his pocket”, the rest being contributed by Indian rajahs and princes with whom he had played cricket and was friendly with, and well wishers from the business community.

MELLO, Idalêncio Froilano de (b.Benaulim, 1877; d.1955). An epidemiologist and scientist whose research in tropical medicine and parasitology earned international acclaim, he was co-founder, in 1934, of Indian Academy of Sceinces along with Nobel laureate Sir C.V. Raman, participated in 25 international conferences and founded Goa’s first leprosarium at Macasana, Goa. He was a great orator, represented Goa in the Portuguese Parliament but came to grief when he pleaded for political autonomy in Goa, and was harassed by the Salazar regime. President Dutra of Brazil who knew of his reputation as a scientist offered him asylum in his country. He taught at the famous São Paulo University and continued with his research work.

MENEZES, Armando (b.1902, Divar; d.1983). A distinguished English and Latin scholar, educationist, writer and poet, he began his academic career as professor, St.Xavier’s College, Bombay and retired as Principal, Karnataka College, Dharwad.

MENEZES, Pascoal (b.Divar, 1910; d.2005). The most successful of Goa’s Catholic entrepreneurs, he had to give up studies in his teens to take charge, upon his father’s death, of the family’s modest drug store which he developed into a leading import agency of consumer goods. After Goa’s merger in India, he diversified the CMM (acronym for Cosme Matias Menezes, his father’s name) empire and started manufacture of pharmaceutical products in collaboration with leading international houses.

MENEZES-BRAGANÇA, Beatriz (b.Chandor, 1916; d.1983). A leading scientist and one of the few woman researchers in her field, she made a significant contribution to cancer therapy. Her interest in cobra venom was aroused by the frequent snake bite deaths in her native Goa, while studying how the venom worked in the human system she discovered its therapeutic properties. Was invited to conduct further research at Paris, Copenhagen and the National Institute for Medical sciences, London. On her return to India, she joined the Halfkine Institute, Mumbai and later the Tata Institute for Cancer Research, rose to be Research Director and, in 1974, the first Dean of the Institute.

MENEZES BRAGANÇA, Luis (b.Chandor, 1878; d.1938). Known in his lifetime as ‘O Maior de Todos’, i.e. the greatest of them all, he was a non-pareil intellectual, writer, journalist, and, above all, an idealogue who campaigned for an autonomous Goa.

MESSIAS GOMES, Aleixo Clemente (b.Panjim, 1873; d.1957). He made a mark in Lisbon’s intellectual circles, was chosen by António José de Almeida to succeed him as editor of A República, when he (Almeida) was elected President of Portugal. Returned to Goa as professor of the Lycée, founded O Heraldo, the first daily of the Portuguese empire.

MIRANDA, Mário de (b.1926). A internationally known cartoonist and illustrator, he has exhibited in India and overseas and was awarded by the President of India, in 2002, Padma Bhushan, the third highest Indian civil honour.

MONIZ BARRETO, Guilherme J. (b.Ribandar, 1863; d. Paris 1896). Portugal’s leading essayist and literary critic, his Ensaios de Crítica marks the beginning of scientific literary criticism in Portugal.

MOOLGAONKAR, Sumant (b. Bombay, 1906; d. 1989). An England-trained engineer, he is responsible for the indigenization of India’s automobile engineering. One of the main pillars of the Tata empire he conceptualized their TELCO complex at Jamshedpur. He was also adviser to the Union Ministry of Economic and Defence Coordination, (since bifurcated and renamed) and in that capacity a member of the Defence Delegation to Washington in 1963.

MORAES, Dom (b.Bombay, 1938. d. 2004). Was one of India’s internationally best known English poet, also writer, translator and columnist.

MORAES, Frank (b. Bombay, 1907; d. 1974). A qualified barrister who never practiced law he opted for journalism and was rated as one of the most enlightened and stylish journalists of his times, was the first Indian editor of The Times of India, till then a British citadel, also edited The Ceylon Times and The Indian Express. He wrote three books on political events and personalities.

MORAES, George Mark (b.Cuncolim, 1905; d.1994). A distinguished historian, associated with St. Xavier’s College, Bombay, Indian Historical Records Commission, Royal Asiatic Society, and Instituto Menezes Bragança, he wrote Kadamba Kula, the most authorative history of the Kadamba dynasty that held sway over the Deccan, from the 10th to the 14th centuries, when the various splintered Kadamba kingdoms were absorbed in the Vijayanagara Empire.

NAIK, Narcinva Damodar (b.Sancoale, 1904; d.1966). One of the Titans of his time, he was, besides a leading businessman, a dynamic social reformer and a great philantropist.. Women’s education and emancipation were some of the causes he championed. A staunch defender of Goa’s separate identity, he was co-founder of United Goans Party.

NAIK, Pundalik (b.1951) Is a prolific and reputed Konkani writer. He won several prizes and awards among them Sahitya Akademi Award, 1984, for Chowrang (collection of one-act plays). Translations of his short stories and plays figure in anthologies of modern Goan literature.

NORONHA, Castilho do R. (b. Neura, 1887; d.1966). Was an erudite priest, a professor at Rachol Seminary and consummate politician. He was a member of Conselho do Governo, and of Conselho Legislativo, the legislative organs of Estado da India. He also represented Goa in Portugal’s Assembleia National, that country’s parliament, for three consecutive terms.

PAES, Leander (b.1973). This Kolkata-based tennis star is the progeny of Goans hailing from Velim, Salcete. He is the son of Dr. Vece Paes, once a hockey player who represented India at the Olympic games and now a doctor specializing in sports medicine.

PAI, Laxman (b. Margao, 1926). Is a Mumbai-educated painter. For some time he was principal of Goa Art College. He went on a scholarship to Paris and his years in France greatly influenced his work. He held many exhibitions.

PAI PANANDIKAR, Vishvanath A. (b. Margao 1935). He is an internationally known economist. Was special advisor to Finance Minister, 1964-1970, founder- president of India’s leading think tank, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi, and member of Group of Eminent Persons of South Asia, 1997 appointed by Prime Minister of India. He is also an industrialist and consultant.

PAINGUNKAR, Rajaram (b.1884; d.1982). Was a dynamic social reformer, he co-founded Gomantak Maratha Samaj for the uplift of the Devdasi community to which he belonged. His autobiography Me Khon, is a stirring indictment of high caste clergy and landed gentry who, for centuries, exploited and enslaved the Devdasis.

PERES da SILVA, Bernardo (b.Neura, 1775; d.1844). He was Portuguese India’s only native governor, albeit with the more modest title of Prefeito. Was deposed and briefly imprisoned after a military revolt by racist white and mestizo troops. Escaped to Daman where, funded by opium trader Rogério Faria, set up his headquarters and planned to raise an army to defeat the forces that had deposed him in Goa but failed in his endeavour. Was elected three times to the Portuguese parliament where he strongly defended the interests of Estado da India. Sought refuge in Brazil when Parliament was dissolved and survived there by teaching.

PINTO, Elrich (Air Vice-Marshal).(b.____ d. 1963). His family hailed from Porvorim, Goa. He planned and led air operations during Operation Vijay in December 1961. Died in tragic helicopter accident in 1963.

PISSURLENCAR, Pandurang S.S. (b.Pissurlem, 1894; d.1969). A self-taught historian, researcher, scholar, linguist, he turned Goa Archives, started by Dr.Bragança Pereira, into a rich storehouse of rare documents. He published several books and essays on Goa’s history and participated in conferences in India and overseas. His many awards include the gold medal from Bombay’s Royal Asiatic Soceity.

PRIOLKAR, Anant. (b.Priol, 1897; d.1973). Was a writer and historian domiciled in Bombay. He was fluent in English, Portuguese and Marathi. He wrote for Bombay University Journal. Has several publications to his credit.

RANE, Pratapsing (b.Sanquelim, 1939). A politician with a management degree, he won successive elections from 1972, was eight-time Chief Minsiter and Speaker of the House for one term.

RIBEIRO, Julio F. (b.Bombay, 1929). His family hails from Porvorim-Goa, he was Police Commissioner, Bombay, later Director General of Police, Punjab, led the operation against Sikh extremists. Was appointed Indian ambassador to Romania.

RODRICKS, Wendell (b.Bombay, 1960). His family hails from Colvale-Goa, he is a U.S. – and Paris-trained leading Indian fashion designer, has pioneered minimalist Indo-Western fusion resort style. Has been researching for some time the history of Goan costumes.

RODRIGUES, Lucio (b.Anjuna, 1915; d.1973). Was a University professor, a prolific writer of non-fiction and fiction, eminent folklorist, his research on Konkani folklore and songs was published by Bombay University Journal. He also researched and published tales, riddles, proverbs in Konkani.

RODRIGUES, Sunith Francis (b.Bombay, 1933). A retired general, presently Governor of Punjab, he was the first Goan Chief of Army Staff (1990-93).

ROSARIO, Patricia. Is a Bombay-born Goan, settled in UK and internationally acclaimed for her singing in opera, oratorio, and recital. She was awarded Order of British Empire, 2001.

SA, Bailon de (b.1913, S.Estevam). Is a leading educationist and intellectual. Commissioned by UNESCO, he set up University of Ghana and was its first vice-chancellor.

SA, Erlich de (b.1947). This U.K–educated engineer is an internationally known ocean scientist. Was first Goan Director, National Institute of Oceanography, 1994-2003. Presently is, on a UNESCO assignment, Director to Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission in Paris.

SALDANHA, Mariano de. (b.Ucassiam, 1878; d.1975). Was a physician-turned-linguist and historian. Taught Marathi and Sanskrit at the Portuguese Lycée in Goa. Was appointed Porfessor of Konkani and Sanskrit in Escola Superior Colonial later renamed Instituto de Altos Estudos Ultramarinos, Lisbon. Wrote fiction and non-fiction championed development of Konkani.

SALGAONCAR, Vassudev Mahadeva (b.1916; d.1984). Was a self-made man who rose from very humble beginnings and built a highly diversified trading and industrial empire. He was, and still is, respected for integrity and business ethics. A great philanthropist, he founded Salgaocar Medical Research Centre; Law College, Institute of Management Studies. A staunch defender of Goa’s heritage and culture, he played a key role at the time of the 1967 Opinion Poll to maintain Goa’s distinct identity. He was awarded Paul Harris Fellowship for contribution to community welfare.

SARDESAI, Damodar R. (b. ?) Is a historian, social scientist, linguist and writer, was head of the South Asian Study section (California University) when he joined the Asiatic Society, Bombay (1989) and rose to be its president in 1993.

SARDESAI, Laxmanrao (b.Savoi-Verem, 1904; d.1986). He was a writer both of fiction and non-fiction in Konkani, Marathi and Portuguese. His liberal views incurred the displeasure of the Portuguese, he co-founded Goa National Congress.

SARDESAI, Malbarao (b.Savoi-Verem 1911; d.2005). Was a renouned musicologist and musician, who excelled at percussion instruments and harmonium. He was a writer and broadcaster.

SARDESAI, Manoharrai L. (b.Panjim, 1925; d.2006). Was a French scholar who studied at Sorbonne, and accomplished Konkani, English, French and Marathi poet. He taught at Goa University. He was honoured by Sahitya Akademi in 1980 for his fine collection of Konkani poems (Pissoli).

SEQUEIRA, Dr. Jack de (b.Rangoon, 1916; d. 1989). He was a leading trader before Goa’s merger. He later co-founded the United Goans Party, and was elected on its ticket for three consecutive terms to the Goa Legislative Assembly. He was an able parliamentarian and a great crusader for the twin causes of statehood and Konkani language. He is known as Father of the Opinion Poll.

SHAMA, Krishnadas (b.Kelshi/Quelossim ( ? , 16th Century) Believed to be the founder of Konkani prose and literature who wrote poems in Marathi. Said to be author of Krishnachavitra Katha in Marathi.

SHENOY GEEMBAB aka Varde Valaulikar (b. Bicholim, 1887; d.1946). Was a self- taught historian and elegant writer in western and vernacular languages. He is credited with the resurgence of Konkani literature. His published works, under the pen name Shenoy Goenbab, include several books in Konkani.

SOARES, Aloysius (b.Ucassaim, 1891; d.1971). He was a teacher before he opted to be a journalist. He edited The Week and Goan Tribune, the latter the official organ of Goa Liberation Council.

SOARES, Ernesto (b. Liverpool, England). He was born in a Goan family that hailed from Salvador-do-Mundo. He was a successful lawyer in Manchester and the first Goan to be elected more than once to the British Parliament. He rose to be Junior Lord of British Treasury.

SOUZA, Francis Newton (b.Saligao, 1924; d. 2003). He was a great painter who rated himself on par with Picasso. He moved from Bombay to London where his bold style appealed to enlightened collectors. He eventually settled in New York. His paintings are highly priced and are found in the world’s great museums.

SOUZA, Julieta de Sa (b.1912; d.1986). She is the first Goan woman surgeon. She headed the gynaecology and obstetrics department of Grant Medical College, before she took over the maternity hospital founded by her father, Herculano de Sa.

SOUZA, Luis José de (b.1943). Is an internationally acclaimed oncologist of Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay. He is as famous for competence as for compassion. He has set up hospices, Shanti Avedna Ashrams, in Bombay, Goa and Delhi, where terminal cancer patients are cared for.

SOUZA, Dr. Romualdo de (b.1925) Jesuit priest. He is former director, Goa Institute of Management, also of Xavier Labour Relations Institute, Jamshedpur and founder-director, Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneshwar. He is an internationally acknowledged management guru.

SOUZA, Sandra de Sa (b.1943). She is a Ear, Nose, and Throat specialist in Bombay. She pioneered ‘cochlear implant surgery’ in India, providing new hope to the hearing- impaired.

SOUZA, Teotonio R. de (b. Moira 1947). He is a former Jesuit historian specializing in the Portuguese period of Goa’s history. He is founder-director, Xavier Centre of Historical Research, Porvorim, 1979-94. Presently teaches history in Lisbon’s Universidade Lusófona.

SOUZA, Walter de (b. Uganda, 1920; d. ? ) His Aldona-hailing parents had migrated to Uganda, on their return to India settled in Bombay where he soon revealed his wizardry at football and hockey. He played for the Lusitanian Club, a Goan club once famous as ‘India’s nursery of hockey’. He was in Indian hockey squad that participated in the London Olympic games, 1948 and won the gold medal.

SOUZA, Wilfred de (b.1927). His family hails from Anjuna, Bardesh. A self-made man, he graduated from Bombay’s Grant Medical College, worked in Dubai and proceeded to U.K where he appeared for his FRCS degree. A brilliant surgeon, greatly admired for his skills but opted for politics, was twice Chief Minister of Goa, and as many times Deputy Chief Minister, a position he is now holding.

TELANG, Kashinath Trimbak (b.Pernem, 1850, d.1893). Was a distinguished judge of the Bombay High Court, an authority on Hindu Law. He was the first Hindu vice-chancellor of Bombay University and the founding father of Indian National Congress.

TRINIDADE, Angela (b.Bombay 1909; d. Brazil 1980). Was a Bombay-domiciled, painter, first woman to obtain a fellowship at J.J School of Art. She specialized in portraits.

TRINIDADE, António Xavier (b.1870; d. 1935). He was a Bombay-based portraitist in great demand. He migrated from Goa to Bombay in 1888, taught at J.J. School of Art. Conservative European art was his forte. He was the father of portraitist Angela Trinidade.

USGAONKAR, Manohar S. (b.Usgao, 1933). He is, since 1988, senior advocate of the Supreme Court and Bombay High Court. He was Advocate General, Goa and Additional Solicitor General, Supreme Court. He is the leading Indian authority on

Portuguese Law. His translation of the Portuguese Civil Code and Personal Laws applicable to Goa is relied upon by the entire Indian legal fraternity, including High Court and Supreme Court Judges.

VAZ, J.Luis António (b. Divar, around 1750; d.1799). He was a general in the Maratha army. He led for a time the Peshwa forces to victory. Was very influential in the Pune Court . Fittingly, died in battle.

VAZ, José (b. Benaulim, Goa, 1651; d.Ceylon, 1711). He was an ascetic and saintly priest who founded the Oratorian Order and seminary adapting the rules of a foreign congregation to suit the Indian requirements and conditions. He evangelized in Ceylon where he served the poor and the needy. He was beatified by the Pope in 1995. His process of canonization is nearing completion.

VAZ, Keith (b.Aden, 1956).This labour MP of Goan parentage reprented the predominantly ethnic Asian constituetncy of Leicester East. He was a junior Minister, before he stepped down on a point of honour.

VAZ, Mariano José (b. Anjuna, 1870; d.1950). He was a legal luminary consulted by both lawyers and judges. A very independent and liberal minded man he contributed to the opposition weekly A Pátria. He was accused of complicity in the 1895 Rane rebellion and fled to Bombay where he lived for a while.

VIEGAS, Acácio Gabriel (b. Arpora, 1856; d. 1933). Was a brilliant epidemiologist who saved Bombay during the tragic bubonic plague outbreak in 1896. Was the first among several other Goans to be elected Mayor of Bombay. In gratitude for his timely and efficient services Bombay honoured him with a bust in the heart of the city, near the landmark Metro Cinema.

VIEIRA, Walter E. (b. Cuncolim 1938). This management guru is the first Asian to head the International Council of Management.

WAGLE, Shripad Venkatesh. He was a Marathi writer. He edited and published Konkanakhyan, 1909, an anonymous and controversial Marathi verse document on the Gowd Saraswat Brahmins of Goa.

XAVIER, Filipe Neri (b.Loutulim, 1801; d.1875). Was a great and self-taught historian. He was director of “Imprensa Nacional”, Goa Government Printing Press. He was a prolific writer who left behind besides numerous research papers, articles, monographs, rare documents on Goa’s Comunidades and Nobilarquia Goana, a book on lineage of Goans awarded honours and titles by the Portuguese monarchy.

ZUZARTE, Joseph Murumbi (b.Africa, 1911). He was the son of a Goan from Guirim, Bardesh who migrated to Africa, became a prosperous merchant and married a Kenyan woman. He participated in African Freedom Movement, along with Pio Gama Pinto who was his role model. He rose to be Vice-president of Kenya in 1966.

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